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Overview of Cancer Treatment Trials

Outline of Cancer Treatment Trials Knowing the Enemy In a time grasped by the guarantee of cytotoxic chemotherapy, a couple of contrad...

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Overview of Cancer Treatment Trials

Outline of Cancer Treatment Trials Knowing the Enemy In a time grasped by the guarantee of cytotoxic chemotherapy, a couple of contradicting voices was heard. Unpredictable chemotherapy couldn't be the main system to assault disease. To assault a malignancy cell, one expected to start by distinguishing its interesting natural conduct, and vulnerabilities. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Charles Huggins, a urological specialist at the University of Chicago, was a pro in infections of the bladder, kidney, private parts, and prostate. The prostate is a little pecan molded organ folded over the outlet of the urinary tract in men. Malignant growth of the prostate speaks to 33% of disease frequency in men, multiple times that of leukemia and lymphoma. In the late 1920s, by performing careful mutilation on hounds, Huggins found that the hormone testosterone kept both the ordinary and disease cells in the prostate alive. Instead of playing out a careful maiming on his patients, Huggins infused a female hormone into their bodies to restrain testosterone work. He called the strategy substance maiming. Similarly as with careful maiming, Huggins found that patients reacted to the treatment, with negligible symptoms. Be that as it may, a large number of the patients who reacted to the treatment in the end backslid. Beatsons Riddle In the late 1890s, a Scottish specialist named George Beatson had discovered that the expulsion of the ovaries from bovines changed the nature of their udders and modified their ability to lactate. Interested by the mystifying connection among ovaries and bosoms, Beatson precisely expelled the ovaries of three ladies with bosom malignant growth. To his wonder, the bosom tumors of his three patients shrank significantly after the medical procedure. In any case, when specialists in London attempted to apply the technique to a bigger gathering of ladies, just around 66% of the bosom malignant growth patients reacted. Illuminating the Riddle In the mid-1960s, Elwood Jensen, a youthful scientific expert in Chicago, working with Huggins, verged on understanding Beatsons enigma. He discovered that estrogen, the essential hormone emitted by the ovaries, worked by official to a receptor in an objective cell. He found that bosom malignant growth cases could be separated into two kinds, contingent upon whether its estrogen touchy or harsh, ER-positive and ER-negative tumors. ER-positive tumors, having the receptor, would react to Beatsons medical procedure. ER-negative tumors not having the receptor, would be inert. The least difficult approach to demonstrate this hypothesis was to dispatch an examination. In any case, the surgery had dropped outdated. An option was to utilize a medication to restrain estrogen work. In any case, Jensen had no such medication. Tamoxifen Trial Tamoxifen was an enemy of estrogen compound created by the hormone researcher Arther Walpole in the mid 1960s. In the mid year of 1969, Moya Cole, a Manchester oncologist work in bosom malignant growth, propelled a clinical preliminary at Christie Hospital in Manchester. Forty-six ladies with bosom malignant growth were treated with tamoxifen. The reaction was practically quick in ten patients. The tumors in the bosom and the lung metastases shrank. In any case, as Hugginss prostate malignant growth patients, a significant number of the patients who reacted to the treatment in the end backslid. Halsteds Ashes Moya Coles tamoxifen preliminary in 1969 was intended to treat ladies with late stage metastatic bosom malignant growth. Be that as it may, Cole pondered about an elective system. Imagine a scenario in which ladies with beginning time tumors were treated with tamoxifen. Bonadonnas Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial A comparable thought happened to a 33-year-old oncologist named Paul Carbone at the NCI ten years prior. Motivated by Min Chiu Li, Carbone had propelled a little preliminary in 1963 and discovered that including chemotherapy after medical procedure decreased the pace of backslide from bosom disease. Carbone and his group called this treatment adjuvant chemotherapy. It would evacuate minute stores of dangerous cells deserted after medical procedure, finishing the malignancy purifying assignment that the medical procedure had decided to do. In 1972, an Italian oncologist name Gianni Bonadonna proposed to the NCI a huge randomized preliminary to read adjuvant chemotherapy for beginning time bosom malignancy. In the mid year of 1973, Bonadonna started his preliminary by randomizing about 400 ladies half to treatment with CMF (a harmful three-sedate mixed drink) and half to no treatment. Bonadonna introduced his outcomes in the winter of 1975. About portion of the ladies in the no treatment bunch had passed while only 33% of the gathering accepting the adjuvant chemotherapy had backslid. So adjuvant chemotherapy had forestalled malignant growth backslides in around one in each six patients. The Fisher Adjuvant Tamoxifen Trial Imagine a scenario where the adjuvant treatment was finished with hormonal treatment rather than chemotherapy. In January 1977, Bernie Fisher selected 1,891 ladies with beginning time ER-positive bosom disease. He rewarded half with adjuvant tamoxifen and the other half with no tamoxifen. By 1981, he discovered that adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen decreased disease backslide rates by one-half. In 1985, Fisher announced that the impact of tamoxifen treatment was considerably increasingly sensational. Among the 500 ladies more seasoned than fifty relegated to each gathering, adjuvant tamoxifen had forestalled fifty-five backslides and passings. Exercises Learned By the 1980s, the old standards of treatment had advanced into new ideal models. Halsteds radical way to deal with assault disease cells was reawakened as adjuvant treatment. Ehrlichs enchantment projectile was resurrected as hormonal treatment. Albeit neither of these options offer complete fixes, these preliminaries had affirmed two significant standards of malignant growth science and disease treatment: These preliminaries carved the message that malignancy was heterogeneous. Malignancies came in assortment of structures, each with special organic practices. The heterogeneity was hereditary: some reacted to hormonal medicines, other not. What's more, the heterogeneity was anatomic: a few malignant growths were neighborhood, while others spread to inaccessible organs. Understanding that heterogeneity was of profound result. It was fundamental to know the malignancy as personally as conceivable before racing to treat it. For example, tamoxifen treatment just applies to ER-positive bosom diseases. Palliative Care Palliative consideration is the part of medication that centers around indication help and solace, established by Cecily Saunders, an English attendant, doctor and social laborer. She made a hospice in London in 1967 to think about the in critical condition and kicking the bucket. Tallying Cancer In November 1985, a Harvard scholar named John Cairns estimated the advancement in the War on Cancer by rejuvenating old records that had existed since World War II. He experienced the malignant growth vault, and state-by-state insights on disease related passings to get a picture of malignant growth after some time. He utilized the malignant growth vault to appraise the quantity of lives spared by the helpful advances since 1950 and partition these remedial advances into different classes. His discoveries were: (1)Less than 5 percent of patients determined to have malignant growth in America; and (2) Less than 10% of patients who might pass on of disease, had appreciated the advances in malignant growth treatment and screening. Cairns investigation was broadly persuasive, however it required some proportion of the near patterns in malignant growth mortality throughout the years. John Bailar and Elaine Smith from Harvard gave such an investigation in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 1986. Bailar-Smith Analysis In the investigation, Bailar-Smith didn't utilize endurance rate examination since endurance rate investigation can be delicate to inclinations, for example, malignant growth screenings. They utilized by and large mortality. To think about examples after some time, they standardized the populace to a similar norm. As per Bailar-Smith: Cancer-related passings had expanded by 8.7 percent from 1962 to 1985. The expansion reflected numerous components, however essentially as a result of the expansion in lung malignant growth brought about by the expansion in smoking rates in the United States. Bailar-Smith noticed that the 35 years of extraordinary endeavors to improve the treatment of malignancy must be made a decision about a certified disappointment. As Cairns had just called attention to, avoidance was the main mediation known to decrease the total mortality for an infection. Bailar contended that counteraction, as a technique, had been ignored by the NCI in its quest for fixes. Treatment systems got 80 percent of the cash while counteraction research got around 20 percent. A comparative inclination existed in private examination foundations. Bailar-Smith noticed, A move in research accentuation, from research on treatment to investigate on avoidance, appears to be essential if considerable advancement against malignancy is to be prospective

Saturday, August 22, 2020

All That Is Sarcasm Free Essays

At the point when dolts show up every step of the way, or in any event, when a companion is being unintelligent, one can be effectively fomented with such inconveniences. In spite of the fact that brutality may appear to be a smart thought at that point, mockery is a superior methodology and it’s simpler on the knuckles. Mockery is less straightforward, in any case, so here are some fast tips to make those clever answers we as a whole love to such an extent. We will compose a custom exposition test on All That Is Sarcasm or on the other hand any comparable subject just for you Request Now With regards to mockery, all comments ought to be lightheartedâ€after all nobody loves a jolt. Pick an expression that isn’t excessively debasing, yet one that gets the point across so the individual knows they’re not being wise. For instance, if a companion says, â€Å"Wow, the sky is truly blue today,† a proper reaction could be, yet isn't constrained to, â€Å"No way! I thought it was purple. † Also, the utilization of mockery in serious situations is carefully beyond reach. In a memorial service setting, for example, mockery is taboo regardless of what the comment is. Recollect that mockery is progressively about being interesting and less about contorting a blade. To add to the cheerful nature, the best possible tone must be taken for mockery to pick up its proposed impact. Utilizing accentuation on various words will make mockery effectively perceivable. To represent, in the reaction ‘no way! I thought is was purple,’ overemphasize ‘no way’. In doing as such, the tone makes it outrightly clear that mockery is available. Be that as it may, don't underscore such a large number of words, or the expression will sound uneven and won't stream with the discussion. Recollect likewise not to place a lot of merriment in the tone or it might be difficult to keep a straight face. In the wake of dropping a mocking comment, it’s best to let the individual acknowledge as opposed to parting with it with insane giggling, so they don’t feel totally muddled. In spite of the fact that happiness and tone make mockery viable, timing is likewise a pivotal part. Having the option to think and react quickly is an absolute necessity particularly if the subject changes quickly. Fundamentally, when an individual says something meriting a mocking comment, rapidly state the comment before the discussion changes subject. In the ‘purple sky’ model, if the companion has just proceeded to discuss their preferred football crew, at that point the comment would get out of date. Despite the fact that it might appear as though utilizing wry comments at the ideal time is a simple errand, it takes some exertion. Ensure that the idea is finished at the ideal time, and on the off chance that it isn't, don’t feel constrained to state it. Presently go, trade careful words with companions and let the clever exchange result. There is no circumstance sufficiently ungainly, no power ground-breaking enough, and no stream sufficiently wide to stop the complexities of mockery. With timing, civility, and tone, a student will before long become an ace of all that is mockery. The most effective method to refer to All That Is Sarcasm, Papers

Friday, August 14, 2020

Poisoning Mother-In-Law

Poisoning Mother-In-Law A long time ago in China, a girl named Li-Li got married and went to live with her husband and mother-in-law.In a very short time, Li-Li found that she couldn’t get along with her mother-in-law at all. Their personalities were very different, and Li-Li was angered by many of her mother-in-law’s habits. In addition, she criticized Li-Li constantly.Days passed days, and weeks passed weeks. Li-Li and her mother-in-law never stopped arguing and fighting. But what made the situation even worse was that, according to ancient Chinese tradition, Li-Li had to bow to her mother-in-law and obey her every wish. All the anger and unhappiness in the house was causing the poor husband great distress. Finally, Li-Li could not stand her mother-in-law’s bad temper and dictatorship any longer, and she decided to do something about it.Li-Li went to see her father’s good friend, Mr. Huang, who sold herbs. She told him the situation and asked if he would give her some poison so that she could sol ve the problem once and for all. Mr. Huang thought for a while, and finally said, Li-Li, I will help you solve your problem, but you must listen to me and obey what I tell you.Li-Li said, “Yes, Mr. Huang, I will do whatever you tell me to do.” Mr. Huang went into the back room, and returned in a few minutes with a package of herbs.He told Li-Li, “You can’t use a quick-acting poison to get rid of your mother-in-law, because that would cause people to become suspicious. Therefore, I have given you a number of herbs that will slowly build up poison in her body.  Every other day prepare some delicious meal and put a little of these herbs in her serving. Now, in order to make sure that nobody suspects you when she dies, you must be very careful to act very friendly towards her. Don’t argue with her, obey her every wish, and treat her like a queen.”Li-Li was so happy. She thanked Mr. Huang and hurried home to start her plot of murdering her mother-in-law.Weeks went by, months went by, and every other day, Li-Li served the specially treated food to her mother-in-law. She remembered what Mr. Huang had said about avoiding suspicion, so she controlled her temper, obeyed her mother-in-law, and treated her like her own mother. After six months had passed, the whole household had changed.Li-Li had practiced controlling her temper so much that she found that she almost never got mad or upset. She hadn’t had an argument in six months with her mother-in-law, who now seemed much kinder and easier to get along with.The mother-in-law’s attitude toward Li-Li changed, and she began to love Li-Li like her own daughter. She kept telling friends and relatives that Li-Li was the best daughter-in-law one could ever find. Li-Li and her mother-in-law were now treating each other like a real mother and daughter.Li-Li’s husband was very happy to see what was happening.One day, Li-Li came to see Mr. Huang and asked for his help again. She said, “Mr. Huang, please help me to stop the poison from killing my mother-in-law! She’s changed into such a nice woman, and I love her like my own mother. I do not want her to die because of the poison I gave her.”Mr. Huang smiled and nodded his head. “Li-Li, there’s nothing to worry about. I never gave you any poison. The herbs I gave you were vitamins to improve her health. The only poison was in your mind and your attitude toward her, but that has been all washed away by the love which you gave to her.”Author Unknown Story Submitted by A.Bhatia abhatia146@gmail.com

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Reading Of Interest Is Anybody s Son Will Do By...

Summary The reading of interest is â€Å"Anybody’s Son Will Do† by Gwynne Dyer. The author was primarily focused on the intense resocialization civilians experience during military basic training. The idea is that those who enter basic are socialized into soldiers and killers, which in return creates efficiency. Dyer argues that any man can be changed through physical and mental pressure, isolation and exhaustion, all after losing their civilian identities. Dyer focuses on resocialization and the deprivation of individualism in the process of basic training for the civilians and also shows the drill sergeants point of view. The beginning of the article focuses on the emotion and feelings of killing a man in battle. Then starts to analysis†¦show more content†¦College freshman experience this as the move from a high school environment to life as a college student. The change in routine, surroundings, and language play a role in resocialization for college students. Also as talked about in the article, members of the Armed Services experience resocialization when they leave civilian life to join the army. Finally, changes in job and/or moving to another country are examples of modern day resocialization. Individualism: Individualism is the term that refers to the ways in which people identify themselves and focus their goals. Individualism gives priority to personal goals as opposed to the goals of a group or society. Once the men have stepped off the bus on Parris Island they give up every aspect of individualism, they are stripped of all valuables and given the same clothes and haircut which they will wear for the remainder of time. American cultures which are seen almost daily are the ability to voice your own opinion, choosing your personal perspective, and even just the choices you choose to make. Individualism is something that can differ between cultures, but most cultures share certain qualities. Social Norms: Social norms or more are the rules of behavior that are considered acceptable in a group or society. People who do not follow these norms may be shunned or suffer some kind of consequence. In the reading the civilians must form to the idea of the marines, BECOME a man. If the men chose

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Similarities And Differences Between Salinger And Holden...

In the book, â€Å"The Catcher in the Rye†, Holden Caulfield has many conflicts and life lessons. Throughout the story the author, J.D. Salinger, creates events that make the main character realize that in life people change and grow. The message behind the story is let children grab the â€Å"gold ring† and you can’t always be the catcher in the rye. All of the things that make Holden who he is have many resemblances to the life of the author, J.D. Salinger. One of the similarities between Holden and Salinger’s lives are they both attended private schools. Holden attended many schools that he continuously got kicked out of. The main school focused on in the story was Pencey Prep. Holden got ejected from Pencey as a result of failing four†¦show more content†¦Holden doesn’t want to talk about his life, or go into any personal details. Salinger tried to avoid any interaction with the media, and didn’t want to talk about his life. In 1 987 Salinger inhibited the publication of his biography by Ian Hamilton. He didn’t want his biography published, nor talked about, like Holden. Another similarity is when salinger was young he wanted to become a drama writer and actor, and in the story Holden’s brother was a Hollywood writer. In the story Salinger wrote, â€Å" . Salinger grew up in New York City, and majority of the book â€Å"The Catcher in the Rye† took place in New York City. D.B. and Salinger have another similar feature. Salinger entered the military in 1942. While Salinger was in the war he wrote. He published â€Å"Slight Rebellion of Madison† in 1946, but it later became â€Å"The Catcher in the Rye†. Holden’s brother also wrote while he was in the military. The war both gave them something to write about. In the book Salinger wrote, â€Å"My brother D.B. was in the Army for four years. He was in the war, too—he landed on D-Day and all—but I really think he hated the Army worse than the war. I was practically a child at the time, but I remember when he used to come home on furlough and all, all he did was lie on his bed, practically. He hardly ever even came in the living room. Later, when he went overseas and was inShow MoreRelatedSimilarities And Differences Between Huckleberry Finn And Ho lden Caulfield771 Words   |  4 PagesThe Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger are arguably two of the most popular American novels. Both novels have withstood the test of time through their timeless themes and relatable characters. Their protagonists, Huckleberry Finn and Holden Caulfield, are memorable and unique with their own distinctive personality traits. Due to each characters originality, it is interesting to note the similarities and differences between them. Huckleberry Finn and Holden Caulfield are alike in that they both lieRead MoreComparison Of IM Crazy By J. D. Salinger746 Words   |  3 PagesWhen J.D. Salinger went to war, he not only affected his own life, but also the life of Holden Caulfield. Similarities between Salinger and Caulfield are too numerous to write off as coincidence: both went to and flunked out of prep schools, and both had a penchant for language classes. Salinger’s life greatly impacted the plot and style of his works because Salinger used himself as inspiration for Holden, as demonstrated through â€Å"I’m Crazy†, â€Å"Slight Rebellion off Madison†, and The Catcher in theRead MoreThe Catcher in the Rye as a Coming-of-Age Story Essay841 Words   |  4 Pagesthere TWO Holden Caulfields in the book, and what is the difference between them? The novel ‘The Catcher in the Rye’ by J.D Salinger is a coming-of-age story. It follows the short tale of Holden Caulfield, a sixteen year old boy, who throughout his experiences in the novel, changes and becomes more mature and independent. The story essentially has two Holden Caulfields, the one telling the story, and the one that the story is being told about. This essay will look at the differences and similaritiesRead MoreMark David Chapman and The Cather in the Rye847 Words   |  3 Pagesmurdering Lennon. In court, Chapman used the novel as his statement and even signed his copy of the novel as â€Å"Holden Caulfield,† the novel’s protagonist, believing himself to actually be Caulfield. Because of this, John Lennon and the book will be eternally connected. However, Lennon’s death is not the only parallel to be drawn between Holden Caulfield and Lennon; the similarities between Holden and Lennon are almost uncanny. Their views on religion are virtually identical; and if they were to be switchedRead MoreCatcher In The Rye Analysis1434 Words   |  6 Pagescontaining heroic protagonists; Holden Caulfield of The Catcher in the Rye is not one of these classic heroes. The article Some Crazy Cliff by Arthur Heiserman and James E. Miller Jr. provides one interpretation of the novel suggesting that the protagonist is unique compared to others commonly found in American literature; most heroes are seeking acceptance while Holden is seeking something within the society he is trying to leave. The novel follows Holden Caulfield, a young boy who recently flunkedRead MoreCatcher in the Rye Essay837 Words   |  4 PagesJ.D Salinger’s fictional novel ‘The Catcher in the Rye’ explores ideas of coming of age and challenging society’s morals through the life of Holden Caulfield, the young protagonist of the novel. The term ‘coming of age’ can be defined as when someone reaches an important stage i n development and is accepted by a large number of people. The word ‘morals’ is concerned with the principles or rules of right conduct or the distinction of right and wrong. Themes such as innocence, isolation and youth resideRead MoreSalinger s The Rye 1527 Words   |  7 PagesCatcher in the Rye is a novel written by J.D Salinger, it follows 17-year-old Holden Caulfield throughout the days following his expulsion from Pencey Prep. The book dives into Holden’s unstable mind as he recounts his story from a rest home, often feeling confused, lost and mad at the world. This underlining theme of teenage angst has become very popular and finds itself in various works of modern day media such as the television show the Fosters. The Fosters follows the story of a similarly troubledRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Catcher Of The Rye 1080 Words   |  5 PagesReaching adulthood for many individuals leaves them instilled with curiosity and unaware of what to come. C haracters like Iggy Slocomb and Holden Caulfield are lead through a journey of self-driven motifs to better understanding there true place in life and adjusting accordingly. Nonetheless there view on society has left them believing hypocrisy is a trait carried through many, and thus falsely believing they are exempt from it. Hypocrisy is viewed as the process of stating moral standards or beliefsRead MoreThe Catcher In The Rye by J. D. Salinger and Looking For Alaska by John Green1729 Words   |  7 Pagesyoung adulthood, provide an insight on the commonalities and differences between these two generations and their unique American experiences. The two novels written by J.D. Salinger and John Green, respectively, were written fifty-four years apart, but their similarities are nonpareil. In fact, Green cites The Catcher In The Rye as an inspiration for his novel. The Catcher In The Rye and Looking For Alaska display similarities between two different generations through macabre inte rnal conflicts,Read MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By F. D. Salinger898 Words   |  4 PagesHuck Finn and Holden Caulfield may seem to be complete opposites at first glance; however, in fact they’re extremely similar. Huck Finn, the lead protagonist in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, is an adolescent boy who was abandoned by his father at a young age. When his father returned Huck ran away and went on an adventure with a runaway slave named Jim. Similarly Holden Caulfield also went on an adventure during which he made several self-discoveries. In The Catcher in the Rye

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organisation Culture Free Essays

string(49) " that lie at the heart of the corporate culture\." Introduction Social scientists and researchers delved into the idea of organisational culture as an important component of organisational theory in the past. Brown (1998) identified four different sources of organisational culture which stems from climate research, national cultures, human resources management, and from conviction approaches. This piece of work critically evaluates organisational cultures in the Early Years settings. We will write a custom essay sample on Organisation Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now The first part looks at the theoretical background to the evolution of organisational culture its importance and types. The second part examines the link between leadership, organisation culture and change management with analysis from experience as an EYP. It also looks at key factors that influence change, problems with change and techniques for implementing change in Early Years settings. The final part is a conclusion and a suggestion of possible measures to effect change in Early Years settings. What is organisational Culture? It is important for one to understand what culture means. The elementary definition is by (Martins and Martins 2003) who defined culture as ‘a system of shared meaning held by members, distinguishing the organisation from other organisations’ Again Arnold (2005, p 625) explains that ‘organisational culture is the distinctive norms, beliefs, principles and ways of behaving that combines to give each organisation its distinct character’. From the above two definitions culture therefore refers to the underlying values, beliefs and codes of practice that makes an organisation what it is. The way of life of that organisation, the self-image of its members, the things that make it different from others, are its culture. Importance of Organisational Culture The main reason for organisational cultures is to stipulate the way of doing things in order to give meaning to organisational life (Arnold 2005). This is important because the staff members need to benefit from lessons of previous members. Organisational culture also determines organisational behaviour by identifying principal goals, work methods, how members should interact and address each other; and how to conduct personal relationships (Harrison 1993) Furthermore, (Brown 1998 p. 89-91) states the functions of organisational culture s follow: * Conflict reduction- A common culture promotes consistency of perception, problem definition, evaluation of issues and opinions, and preferences for action. coordination and control- Because culture promotes consistency of outlook it also facilitates organisational processes of coordination and control * Reduction of uncertainty- Cultural mindset reduces anxiety which makes the work place a simple, choices easier and rational actions possible * Motivation- An appropriate and cohesive culture offers workers a focus of identification and loyalty foster belief and values that encourages workers to perform. Types of Organisational Culture Organisational culture has been classified into different categories by researchers of which the most commonly used one is Handy (1993). He noted four main category of organisational culture namely, power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture. Power culture There are some organizations where the power remains in the hands of only few people and only they are authorized to take decisions. They are the ones who enjoy special privileges at the workplace. They are the most important people at the workplace and are the major decision makers. These individuals further delegate responsibilities to the other employees. In such a culture the subordinates have no option but to strictly follow their superior’s instructions. The employees do not have the liberty to express their views or share their ideas on an open forum and have to follow what their superior says. The managers in such a type of culture sometimes can be partial to someone or the other leading to major unrest among others. Task Culture Organizations where teams are formed to achieve the targets or solve critical problems follow the task culture. In such organizations individuals with common interests and specializations come together to form a team. There are generally four to five members in each team. In such a culture every team member has to contribute equally and accomplish tasks in the most innovative way. Person Culture There are certain organizations where the employees feel that they are more important than their organization. Such organizations follow a culture known as person culture. In a person culture, individuals are more concerned about their own self rather than the organization. The organization in such a culture takes a back seat and eventually suffers. Employees just come to the office for the sake of money and never get attached to it. They are seldom loyal towards the management and never decide in favour of the organization. One should always remember that organization comes first and everything else later. Role culture Role culture is a culture where every employee is delegated roles and responsibilities according to his specialization, educational qualification and interest to extract the best out of him. In such a culture employees decide what best they can do and willingly accept the challenge. Every individual is accountable for something or the other and has to take ownership of the work assigned to him. Power comes with responsibility in such a work culture. Organisation Culture as evidenced in Early Years Setting From the above discussions so far it is eminent that organisation culture is inevitable way of life that can be found in every institution. This section focuses on how organisation culture influences the effective running of nurseries and infant schools in other words, how successful these types of culture mentioned in our earlier discussion positively or negatively affects the day to day running of nurseries. From experience working in Early Years settings each setting has its own culture and way of doing things that enables them to successfully achieve their goals. Research reveals that there is relationship between culture and an organisation’s success. Relating this idea in the context of Early Years Settings one can say that there is a definite relationship between culture and a setting’s success. Deal and Kennedy (1982) argue that culture is the single most important factor that determines the success or failure in an organisation. They identified four key dimensions of culture: * Values – the beliefs that lie at the heart of the corporate culture. You read "Organisation Culture" in category "Essay examples" * Heroes – the people who embody values. * Rites and rituals – routines of interaction that have strong symbolic qualities. The culture network – the informal communication system or hidden hierarchy of power in the organization. Again Peters and Waterman (1982) emphasise on the importance of organisational intangibles such as values and heroes. They suggest a psychological theory of the link be tween organizational culture and performance. According to them ‘culture can be looked upon as a reward of work; we sacrifice much to the organization and culture is a form of return on effort’. From the above researches so far it is evident that culture exists in every organisation including Early Years Settings. The next paragraph describes observation from two organisations I worked as part of my placement. A particular focus is an evaluation of the merits and demerits of these cultures as noticed in these organisations. Organisation 1 Features * Routine planning is done by leader for the next day * Staff follows strictly what has been planned * Staff needs to consult leader at each stage of daily routine there7 * No flexibility * Leader style is autocratic * There is no hierarchy * There are informal groups within who are often friends that â€Å"get on well† with each other therefore sees any new staff as threat. Evaluation Oganisation1 exhibits power culture, part of the reason perhaps been the fact that the leader is the only highly qualified member with the subordinates possessing basic qualification. The merits of this type of culture are it unifies the each one’s effort behind the vision of the leader as everyone strives hard to please the leader. Again it can provide certainty and focus and reduces conflicts and confusion since the leader is the absolute decision maker. The demerits are that, staff turn to give the bosses wishes a priority even if it interferes with a vital decision on individual level. People do not question the leader even if he or she is wrong. Leaders also could break rules and take personal privileges thereby restricting the flow of information to only friends and allies. Furthermore, people are promoted by been loyal to the leader even when they are not competent. Finally because there are informal groups within the organisation with personal interest there is a tendency of rivalry ‘set up each other† attitude among staff in an attempt to please the leader. Organisation 2 Features * Planning and preparation is done as a team * There is some flexibility in routine Leadership style exhibits both democratic and autocratic * There is hierarchy of job roles and specialisation by each member * There is bureaucracy in decision making * Work is controlled by procedures and rules that spells out each member’s role Evaluation A close study of organisation 2 show a role culture one merit of which is the fact that there are clear rules and guidelines th at protects each staff member from exploitation, abusive use of power and position. This in turn provides a sense of security and confidence to staff to carry on their daily duty without any fear or intimidation. Secondly, there are well designed structures in place this enable new staff members to know quickly what to do at what time and when to do this. This further help new members to â€Å"fit well† among existing staff which motivates them to freely interact with everybody. Again staff members do not hold back information but share freely among staff which is necessary for any good teamwork. On the contrary, this type of organisation culture has some demerits. Job roles are strictly defined that it does not enable staff members with special abilities to flourish. In other words, members stick to their job roles as prescribed by the rules. The problem with this practice is that it turns to generate a blame culture among staff. It could lead to individualism depending on the size and spectrum of the setting in that, each department only share among themselves and no one else. Finally it can be difficult for staff to get approval for changes because of bureaucracy and procedures. Staff may give up and stick to their normal roles. As noted by Harrison (1993 p. 34) that ‘it is a sin to exceed one’s authority or deviate from accepted procedures. From the above discussion so far one can say that both cultures have their merits and demerits but overall role culture shows an example of healthy organisational culture as compared to power culture. It is again notable from the evaluation that both of the organisations discussed so far have leaders to direct the affairs. This leads to one important question that needs consideration – d o leaders mould the shape of Early Years Settings or do the settings mould the leaders? The next section critically examines this. Does leadership influence organisational culture? From ordinary point of view and experience as workers we all worked under some form of leadership and most often we end up following leadership directives and procedures. Again we often hear that some leaders are competent and perform brilliantly in one organisation but struggle to make impact when they are moved into another organisation to perform the same level of duty. Similarly we also function effectively when placed into one team but when moved to another team we struggle to understand the routines. The question of whether leadership influence organisational culture would be two sided answer in that both influence each other. As much as good leadership is vital for the success of any organisation so is effective organisational culture essential in putting necessary structures in place for staff members to operate effectively. To support the above notion early research shows that leadership affects organizational form, culture, and practices. Founders of organizations establish the initial culture of their organizations (Schneider, Goldstein, Smith, 1995), and founders and subsequent leaders continue to influence the organizational culture (Schein, 1992). It is therefore notable that in most organisations new leaders try to follow the practices and culture laid down by their predecessors with some improvements. Another dimension of influence can be linked to leader effectiveness and acceptance by staff members. One can therefore say that leader acceptance influences leader effectiveness and leader effectiveness influence leader acceptance. In fact they are interdependent. Furthermore societal cultural values and practices also affect organizational culture and practices. Societal culture has a direct influence on organizational culture, as the shared meaning that results from the dominant cultural values, beliefs, assumptions, and implicit motives endorsed by culture (House, Wright, and Aditya, 1997). Thus, the attributes and behaviours of leaders are, in part, a reflection of the organizational practices, which in turn are a reflection of societal cultures (Kopelman, Brief, Guzzo, 1990). The next paragraphs looks at organisational culture, leadership and how to handle change in Early Years settings. Organisational Culture and Change management in Early Year Settings This part delves into the principles of change management, the key factors that influence change, problems with change and techniques for implementing change in Early Years settings. Organisational change can be a complex process and therefore needs to be handled carefully as pointed out by (Frenkel, 2003) that Organisational change is a process that affects employees at all level in an organisation. Any new policies or changes to introduce could have both positive as well as negative effect. (Schneider amp; Rentsch 1988) also re-iterated that in dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly necessary to identify as fully as possible the attributes of the existing or new target culture — the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that underpin the culture’. Early Years settings have their own cultures in place as discussed earlier and any attempt to introduce a change or an improvement to the existing cultures could lead to resistance in many forms including overt comments such as ‘we are ok with how we do things’ or ‘Oh here we go again we have been through a lot of changes already which never worked’. In view of this there are a number of factors that influence the process of change. Key influences on the change process One important factor that counts towards the success of change is commitment to change. This is true because change is most likely to be successful if staffs understand the reason for the change and show willingness and commitment. Another factor that influences change can be found in a model by (Herscovitch and Meyer 2002). According to the model commitment to organisational change comprises of three construct: Affective, Normative and Continuance to change. Affective commitment to change is based on the realisation of the benefits associated to change. Normative commitment to change is the sense of obligation an employee feels towards the organisation. Continuance commitment to change is based on the realisation of the fact that there are costs associated to the failure to support the change. All or a combination of these types play are vital factors that influence a change. Furthermore, timing and pace of change can be a crucial influence in making a change successful. This is true when a change agent introduces one thing at a time and takes time to make sure that all recipients embrace the idea and gradually tried and test it. Finally resistance to change is a major factor that influences change. It is important to understand the people who will be involved in the process ie those engaged in it and those who will feel the consequence of it. Resistance to change could happen as a result of breakdown in communication between the change agent and recipient of change or a failure on the part of the change agent to legitimise the change after it has successfully been put in place. Techniques to implementing and managing change as EYP From the earlier discussions it is found out that organisational culture, leadership and change management are interrelated. This section outlines the role of EYP in implementing a successful change to a perceived organisational culture in Early Years settings. The techniques for change below are among numerous suggestions which is adapted from the work of John P. Kotter’s: The 8 steps process of leading Change. Although he explains this in the context of profit making business organisations I believe this can be very useful in the context of leading a change in Early Years Settings. Establishing a sense of urgency This involves discussing crisis and identifying potential threats and opportunities. EYPs as a leader of change should not allow too much complacency from staff – This happens when complacency levels are high for example comments like â€Å"yes we have our problems, but they aren’t that terrible and we’re doing our job just fine† This kind of comments reflects the mind-set of some staff members which might not necessarily be their fault but rather the organisational culture that existed long before some members were employed. The role of an EYP is to always look out for ways of improvement and create a sense of urgency among subordinates. Creating a powerful guiding coalition It is vital for EYP’s to collaborate with key members of staff to lead the change and encourage them to work as a team. This is where leadership plays an important role. A leader of change cannot work in isolation but mobilise specific skilled personnel within to work on aspects of the culture that needs changing. Developing a change vision One of the most common errors in leading a change is underestimating the power of vision. Vision plays a useful role in bringing about successful change by helping to direct, align and inspire actions on the part of large number of people. As a new EYP, it can be challenging when you find yourself among experienced staff that have been on the job for many years. This is where resilience and confidence play a part in getting the vision across. The most important thing is to believe that your vision is accomplishable if you put the necessary procedures in place. Communicating the vision for buy-in Communication is essential for the ideal EYP if any vision is perceived. This problem is what John Kotter described as ‘under-communicating the vision by a factor of 10 (100 or even 1000)’. There are a number of good ideas and that never materialise as a result of poor communication. Communication in this context is not just a matter of assembling staff to announce the vision. It is a matter of seeking opinions and engaging in a dialogue with the recipients of the change in a calm and sensible manner. Occasionally those who resist the change would pretend not to be aware of the vision have no knowledge about it. Your role as a professional should focus on getting the message once again to them and ensure that they understand it. Empowering Broad-based Action Actions should be based on building a sense of community that understands that there is a need for change. This would minimise hindrances to the progress of the vision. As an EYP it is advisable to prevent obstacles to block your efforts in making a contribution to change. New initiatives fail when employees, even though they embrace a new vision feels disempowered by huge obstacles in their paths. Occasionally the obstacles are in people’s head and the challenge is to convince them that no external obstacles exist. One well-placed blocker can stop an entire change process. Generate Short-term wins Failing to create short-term wins will act as a disincentive to some people. Some people will not carry on unless they see a compelling evidence of success. Without this some may give up and join the resistance. As the change takes off, there should be plans in place to track changes in performance then recognise and reward employees involved in the improvement accordingly. Consolidate improvement and produce more change Sometimes we get too excited when a vision takes off and we start hearing success stories such that we end up with declaration of premature victory. As a leader of change it is vital to build on present victory or consolidate the change so that not attempt in any form will collapse it. This is not to say that EYPs should not celebrate success if they achieve their vision, it brings a positive change in their setting which is of course vital as a motivating tool in that it helps achieve self-actualisation. However they should use the early wins to further change systems and structures that would support the vision for good. Institutionalise new approaches Finally when the change has occurred, it is the role of the leader to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture- two important approaches in anchoring new changes in organisational culture firstly, is a conscious attempt to show people how specific behaviours and attitudes have helped improve performance. When people are left to make their own connections they can easily create wrong links. e. g. Our nursery is rated the first and oversubscribed by parents last year when Irene Attrams was the leader so it must be as a result of her ‘flamboyant and zero tolerance or no nonsense behaviour’, rather than the new ‘every child matters’ strategy that had in fact, made the difference. It is therefore necessary to lay down policies and legitimise them so that all staffs can see which actions lead to success instead rather than the leader. Conclusion What constitutes organisational culture and its perceived role in organisational success are challenged to originate from perceptions of culture. This could be historically-based rooted from the founder’s initial ideas, society of environment in which the setting operate, or a pure influence from the past and present leaders. Change management is one of the challenging aspects of EYPs role couple with the fact that the EYP qualification is still at the stage of full recognition. Nevertheless the role of EYP as a leader of change has become laudable especially with the government’s decision to shift from just a babysitting era into early year professionalism with a set of directives detailing what is seen as best practice. In the current era more emphasis is laid on a set of qualifications as well as personal attributes necessary for leadership in Early Years setting. Researchers however fear that this will make the work of the EYP more mechanistic. For instance (Rike and Sharp, 2008) stated that ‘We prefer to think more in terms of the qualities and ‘professional dispositions’ that can be seen in practice, such as having a caring attitude, valuing early education, reflecting carefully on the way children learn, gaining relevant qualifications and showing a desire to change practice’. Moss, 2010) therefore suggest that they should be seen as dispositions that may be refined and developed by a considered exploration of values, beliefs, attributes, professional and personal heritage and professional competencies. This moves away from the notion of practitioners being seen as ‘implementers’ of policies, competencies and technical skills. The is however an evidence of bright future for the EYPs as leaders and managers of change. In July 2009 a survey was commissioned by CWDC to undertake the longitudinal study of the role and impact of Early Years Professional Status. The research was a three-year investigation of the role and impact of Early Years Professionals on their settings and on practitioners’ career development and aspirations through two national surveys of EYPs and case studies based in 30 early years settings across England. The survey asked practitioners to rate the impact of gaining EYPS across a number of skills, dispositions and understandings drawn from the EYPS standards. These range from developing their own knowledge and skills and those of colleagues through to working with children and parents and their use of observations to assess children’s cognitive and social development. The overall responses are extremely positive across all six areas of the standards. The highest level of agreement (92 per cent) is in the area of their own knowledge and skills development, with lower levels of impact reported in the areas of observing children’s learning (74 per cent) and social development (73 per cent). (Hadfield M. , Waller T. 2011) In view of the above there is remarkable evidence that the EYPs have acquired the highest skills in their own delepment which is necessary to become a leader of change in any setting they find thelselves. Charles Handy’s Model of Organisation culture http://www. managementstudyguide. com/charles-handy-model. htm Charles Handy (Understanding organisations, 4th edition, Penguin Books 1993) http://www. cihm. leeds. ac. uk/document_downloads/new_nla_paper_leadership_and_culture__2_. pdf Arnold, J. 2005. Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace, 4th edition. London: Prentice Hall Financial Times. Brown, A. 1998. Organisational Culture, 2nd edition. London: Financial Times Pitman Publishing. Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437-454. Schneider, B. , Goldstein, H. W. , ; Smith, D. B. (1995). The ASA Framework: An update. Personnel Psychology, 48, 747-783. Schneider, B. ; Rentsch, J. 1988, ‘Managing Climates and Cultures: A Futures Perspective’, in Futures of Organizations, ed. J. Hage, Lexington Books, Massachusetts. Harrison, R. 1993. Diagnosing Organizational Culture: Trainer’s Manual. Amsterdam: Pfeiffer ; Company. Herscovitch L. Meyer J. P. 2002) Commitment to Organisational Change: Extension of a three component model . Journal of Applied Psychology , 87, 474-487. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press. Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic view (2nd ed. ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. House, R. J. , ; Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management, 23(3), 409-473. Kopelman, R . E. , Brief, A. P. , ; Guzzo, R. A. (1990). The role of climate and culture in productivity. In B. Schneider (Ed. ), Organizational climate and culture (pp. 282-318). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Martins, N. ; Martins, E. 2003. ‘Organisational culture’, In Robbins, S. P. , Odendaal A. ; Roodt, G. (eds), Organisational Behaviour: Global and Southern African Perspectives. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa. Rike, C. and Sharp, L. K. (2008) ‘Assessing pre-service teachers’ dispositions: a critical dimension of professional preparation’, Childhood Education, 84 (3): 150–3. Moss, P. (2010) ‘We cannot continue as we are: the educator in an education for survival’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 11 (1): 8–19. Kotter J. P. â€Å"Why Transformation Efforts Fail† Harvard Business Review (March-April 1995): 61 Kotter J. P. (1996) ‘Leading Change’ Harvard Business Press Hadfield M. , Waller T. (2011) ‘EYPs are a force for good’ University of Wolverhampton’s Centre for Development and Applied Research in Education. at http://www. nurseryworld. co. uk/news/1051102/Analysis-EYPs-force-good/ . How to cite Organisation Culture, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Methods and Tools in User-Centred Designs - MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Methods and Tools in User-Centred Designs. Answer: Introduction The report explores the digital disruption, which occurred with the advent of Uber Company, which is based on the sharing economy. It is a global taxi company with headquarters in San Francisco, California. The company designs a mobile application which acts as a medium between passengers and the taxi drivers. Uber is considered as the epitome of shared economy and digital disruption as it has been one of the primary company to disrupt a current industry abruptly (Pwc, 2017). Therefore, the phenomenon of digital disruption is also known as Uberization. The Uber drivers have their own cars and they avail the mobile application to find the customers. It is one of the pioneer company for Uberisation. Introduction to the Case The Uber application software is installed by both drivers and users for sharing cab. It is convenient way of finding a taxi in the nearby area. It follows the upfront pricing method in which the rider is quoted a price after he enters the drop location. Other than that, the fares of the company are based on the dynamic pricing method in which the fares becomes high at the time of high demand. The same route costs different to different users at different time. However, the increased usage of Uber and other ride sharing companies has negatively affected the value of taxi medallions in different cities. Previously, they used to play a cortical role in providing taxi services at the specific time and duration. However, their profits have declined over the time. Uber has also disrupted the taxi services and previous structure of taxi industry. Most of the taxi drivers have installed the application and charge the fare as per the policy of the organization (Pemberton, 2017). Although a large number of drivers are working with the organization, the legal arrangement is that of contractors instead of employees. As a result, taxes, working hours and other benefits are not provided to the drivers. WCA before the digital disruption Customers Products Services High-class people Travel services Major Activities or Processes Traditionally, in the taxi industry, the drivers used to operate independently or with the help of medallion. The drivers used to stand at the major traffic area and the people can avail the services through it. Other than that, the taxi drivers can be called through medallion or through their individual contact numbers. The drivers can charge the riders as per the standard rates. They also had freedom to accept or decline a ride. Participants Information Technologies There are several participants in the taxi industry. The first is government, which set the rules and regulations in the taxi industry. The set the standard rates in the industry. Other stakeholder is the medallion who serves as a link between the consumers and the taxi drivers. The taxi drivers drive their vehicle across the city. The consumers are other stakeholders. The responsibility of safety and security of the consumer is biggest concern. Therefore, he federation of the drivers as well as governments of most of the countries have made it mandatory to conduct a background check of drivers. There is several critical information required in the taxi industry. It includes the background check and information of the drivers (Stanton, Salmon, Walker Jenkins, 2017). The drop location of the riders is also necessary for running the taxi system. Along with it, the drivers must be aware of the latest rates and price in the taxi industry. Telephone and internet services are required to book a cab in the industry (Zaphiris Kurniaswan, 2007). WCA after the digital disruption Customers Products Services General public With low rates, students and working professionals have also started using the service Ride sharing service, sharing with other customers, food delivery services, outstation rentals Major Activities or Processes With the advent of Uber, the dynamics or the major activities of transport industry has been changed. A mobile application is used to control the inflow of the customers and the taxi drivers. Previously, the taxi drivers used to have issue in accessing the users or the cab drivers. The mobile application has increased the comfort of both the cab drivers as well as the riders. The users can book a cab by sitting at the comfort of their home. They can easily book a ride and ask the driver to pick them up from their home. It is similar to a personalized chauffer service. On the other hand, the drivers can get immediate access to all the users in the nearby location. They can select a customer as per the travel time or their direction of route. The driver and the user do not have to further struggle over the charge and it is automatically calculated by the mobile application. The users can also choose to pay from their online payment methods or through the cash. It increases the convenie nce and the comfort of the users. Participants Information Technologies There are several participants in the taxi services. The government plays a crucial role in the price determination of the services. The government set some standard rates, which are needed to be maintained by the taxi drivers. They are called the base rates. The taxi drivers have to comply by it (Galer, Ziegler Galer, 2016). Currently, Uber has been in issues with several governments because of employment and the user privacy laws. The drivers are termed as independent contractors and they are not given employment benefits. In several countries, the company has been under the government radar due to several cases, which breaches the consumer security. The information pertaining to the users is confidential and should not be shared or revealed. The users share their name and mobile number while booking the cab. However, this information should not be used for any malicious purpose. As discussed above, Uber follows a dynamic pricing model. As a result, the company needs to collect information regarding the peak hours at a particular location. It also needs to collect information regarding the personal background of the drivers. This information needs to be verified and authenticated. Uber is a technology-based company and needs mobile application to handle all the operations. Other than that, it needs appropriate infrastructure and population so that the profits can be generated through the application (Khosla, Damiani Grosky, 2012). Problem Identification It can be identified that in the previous structure of the taxi industry, the customers as well as the taxi drivers used to have issues to access each other. The intermediary used to take unnecessary commissions. Moreover, the overall access to the riders was also limited. The taxi drivers have access to limited profitability. The customers also do not have proper access to the taxi drivers. However, there are several issues in the contemporary mobile application too. The foremost issue is that of the customer safety. There should be additional features in the mobile application, which assures the safety of the customers. The company should also take initiative to assure the safety and security of the drivers. Recommendations In order to address these issues, the company should make clear policies in its system. A thorough background check should be made mandatory for the drivers. It will examine the previous criminal record and other information for the drivers. It is an important step to maintain the safety of the customers. Due to a few legal cases, a negative air is created surrounding the company. The company should design appropriate marketing efforts so that this negative air is diminished (Baines Fill Page, 2013). The marketing campaign should be designed as per the local culture and customer choice. Implementation Plan In order to conduct a background check for the drivers, the company should develop a clear policy. All the subsidiaries and local branches should abide by the policy. Other than that, the organization should also offer incentives and other employee motivation techniques to keep the employees motivated. The company should design unique marketing campaign according to the local culture of the country (Baker Hart, 2016). It will increase the attractiveness of the product. The company can also adapt the product as per the local culture of the country. Conclusion It can be concluded that digital disruption is a significant phenomenon, which can change the dynamics of the entire industry. The taxi industry was disrupted with the advent of Uber, a ride sharing service. It develops a mobile application through which the consumers and the drivers can access each other. Several recommendations have been identified in the report. An implementation plan has been proposed to address the situation. References Baines, P., Fill, C. Page, K. (2013). Essentials of Marketing. OUP Oxford. Baker, M.J., Hart, S. (2016). The Marketing Book. Routledge. Galer, M., Ziegler, J., Galer, M. (2016). Methods and Tools in User-Centred Design for Information Technology. Elsevier. Khosla, R., Damiani, E., Grosky, W. (2012). Human-Centered e-Business. Springer Science Business Media. Stanton, N.A., Salmon, P.M., Walker, G.H., Jenkins, D.P. (2017). Cognitive Work Analysis: Applications, Extensions and Future Directions. CRC Press. Zaphiris, P., Kurniaswan, S. (2007). Human-Computer Interaction Research in Web Design and Evaluation. Idea Group Inc (IGI). Pwc. (2017). Uber, digital and disruption: whats happening and why does it work? [Online]. Available at: https://digital.pwc.co.nz/ideas/uber-digital-and-disruption-whats-happening-and-why-does-it-work/ [Accessed on: 4 January 2017]. Pemberton, A. (2017). Uber is everything that is wrong with disruption. The Campaign. [Online]. Available at: https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/uber-everything-wrong-disruption/1440077 [Accessed on: 4 January 2017].